22nd Australasian Weeds Conference (2022)

The 22nd Australasian Weeds Conference (22AWC) was held on 25-29 September 2022, Adelaide, SA.

Download the Conference Programme here
Plenary 9

Developing the National Established Weed Priorities Framework p1 Shalan Scholfield, Shauna Potter, Matt Sheehan, John G. Virtue

1A Environmental Biosecurity Related Session: Environmental Weed Control Successes and Lessons

Using a Multi-Pronged Strategy for Wheel Cactus Control in Central Victoria .. p2 Lee Mead

Cottonbush Invasion in Western Australia: Ecology and Social Perspectives .. p3 Mariana Campos, Kathryn L. Batchelor, Karen L. Bell, Michael Davy, Mike Christensen, Raphael K. Didham, Bruce L. Webber

Bush in Western Australia: A Tale of Two Chrysanthemoides .. p7 Kathryn L. Batchelor, John K. Scott, Bruce L. Webber

Accelerating Hawkweed Eradication: Innovation, Collaboration and Persistence .. p11 Hillary Cherry, Mark Hamilton, Paul Skeen, Jo Caldwell, Janelle Jenkins

A Decade of New Weed Records in South Australia: An Overview from the State Herbarium of South Australia .. p12 Chris Brodie, Peter J. Lang

1B Global, New Zealand and Australian Herbicide Resistance Perspectives & Farming System Behaviour Change Over Time

From Tactical to Strategic Herbicide Use: On the Systematic Challenges of Herbicide Resistance Management in New Zealand’s Arable Sector .. p13 Martin Espig, Robyn Dynes, Roxanne Henwood, Trevor James

Differences Between New Zealand and Australia in Development of
Herbicide Resistance
.. p14 Kerry Harrington, H. Ghanizadeh, I. Heap

A Macroecological Perspective of Herbicide Resistance in Weeds .. p15 Philip Hulme

Are you Sure? A Test of how Herbicide Resistance Testing can Inform Weed Management Decisions .. p16 Rick Llewellyn, Fiona Dempster, Masood Azeem, Roberto Busi

Herbicide Resistance in Perennial Pasture Systems — The Horse Has Bolted .. p17 Jo Powells

1C Social Research Towards Weed Control — Speakers and Panel Session

Scaling up and Applying Qualitative Social Research on Lay Knowledge in Invasive Plant Management .. p21 Nicholas Gill, Laurie Chisholm, Jenny Atchison, Gina Hawkes, Sonia Graham, Shaun McKiernan, Lesley Head

Social Successes in Weed Management .. p 22 Sonia Graham, Jenny Atchison, Zhao Ma, Leonie Miller, Tanya Howard, Tom Bach

Outdoor Recreation and Plant Biosecurity in the Snowy Mountains Region of NSW Australia .. p23 Jen Smart, Nicholas Gill, Leonie Miller, Sonia Graham, Isabelle Wolf, Hillary Cherry

2A Biological Control — Australia & NZ

A Regional Perspective on NZ’s National Collective Funding Model for Biocontrol of Weeds Research .. p27 Shane Hona

Validating the New Zealand Biocontrol Risk Model for Australia: Systematic Surveys for Non-Target Host Use .. p28 Jackie Steel, Hasan Rahmani, John Ireson, Dianne B.J. Taylor, Quentin Paynter, Caitlin Selleck, Francesco Martoni, Raelene Kwong

Assessing the Risks of Biological Control to Crop and Ornamental Cultivars. .. p32 Greg Lefoe, Cindy E. Hauser, Jackie Steel, Umar Lubanga, Anthony T. Slater, Raelene Kwong, Libby Rumpff

2B Weed Control in Cotton Farming Systems

Glyphosate Resistance in Australian Cotton Farming Systems, What are the Surveys Telling us? The Then and Now .. p33 Eric A. Koetz, Md. Asaduzzaman, Jeff Werth, Graham W. Charles

Effectiveness of Glufosinate, Dicamba and Clethodim on Glyphosate-Resistant and Susceptible Populations of Five Key Weeds in Australian Cotton Systems .. p37 Jeff Werth, David Thornby, Michelle Keenan, James Hereward, Bhagirath Singh Chauhan

Using the Critical Period for Weed Control to Establish a Weed Threshold in Irrigated Cotton .. p38 Graham W. Charles, Ian N. Taylor

2C Community Coordination for Weed Management in Arid Landscapes — Speakers and Q&A Session

A Community Approach to Tackling Hudson Pear .. p42 Jo-Anna Skewes, Andrea Fletcher-Dawson, Peter Dawson, Wendy L. Gibney, Mat Savage, Andrew McConnachie, Royce Holtkamp

Buffel Grass Invasion Across Arid Lands: Evidence of Impacts on Ecological and Cultural Values .. p43 Ellen Ryan-Colton, Christine Schlesinger, John Read, Glenda Wardle, Kris French

Alinytjara Wilurara Landscape Board and Indigenous Rangers Protecting Millions of Hectares of Pristine Desert from Buffel Grass Invasion .. p 44 Adam Wood, Stephen Rapp

3A Biocontrol Successes, Methods & Modelling

New Insights from Population Genomics into the Invasive Lantana camara L Species Complex .. p45 Patricia Lu-Irving, Francisco Encinas-Viso, Jason Callander, Michael Day, Johannes Le Roux

Biological Control of Navua Sedge (Cyperus aromaticus) in Australia .. .. p48 Kunjithapatham Dhileepan, Daisuke Kurose, Dianne B.J. Taylor, Boyang Shi, Marion Seier, Yu Pei Tan, Roger Shivas

Controlling Cacti with Cochineal in the SA Arid Lands .. p52 Paul Hodges, C. Foulton

3B Cropping Weed Threats, Weed Biology and Seed Dormancy — Speakers and Q&A Session

Biology of Globe Chamomile (Oncosiphon piluliferum (L.f.) Källersjö) .. p53 Alexandra Douglas, David F. Nicholson

Biology of Feather Rhodes Grass (Chloris virgata) .. p56 Bhagirath Chauhan

Resistance Surveys and Commercial Testing Services — Similarities and Differences for Annual Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) Across South-Eastern Australia .. p57 Peter Boutsalis, John Broster, Gurjeet Gill, Chrisher Preston

3C CAWS Workshop Series: Weed Remote Sensing Forum

Weed Managers Guide to Remote Detection: Understanding Opportunities and Limitations of Technologies for Remote Detection of Weeds .. p58 Jane E. Kelly, Motiur Rahaman, Juan Sandino, Lihong Zheng, Hillary Cherry, Mark Hamilton, Remy Dehaan, Felipe Gonzalez, Wendy Menz, Liesl Grant

4A Environmental Biosecurity Related Session: Weed Invasion, Prevention and Eradication

Progress in the Eradication of Miconia calvescens from Australia .. p63 Simon J. Brooks, Kimberley Erbacher

Horizon Scan for Incoming Weeds into Queensland, Australia ..p67 Olusegun O. Osunkoya, Christine Perrett, Moya Calvert, Steve Csurhes

Making the Most out of a Sticky Situation — Acting on Sticky Nightshade as an Emerging Threat .. p71 Marita Sydes

4B GRDC Symposium Stream: Weed Impacts in the Australian Grains Industry — Speakers and Q&A Session

Competition from Great Brome and Barley Grass Reduces Wheat Yield .. p72 Harmohinder Dhammu, Abul Hastem, Glen Riethmuller, Catherine Borger

Predicting Profitability of Summer Weed Control Timing and Impact on Crop Yield Potential: $ummer .. p73 Yvette M. Oliver, Rick Llewellyn, Therese McBeath, Bill Davoren, Andrew Ware

4C Strategic Planning and Analysis to Support Coordinated Weed Control

A Collaborative and National Approach for Understanding the Distribution of Weeds in Australia .. p77 Katherina Ng, Kirstin Proft, David Mitchell, Miles Keighley, Phil Tennant, Margarita Medina

The Evolution of Environmental Weed Management on Auckland’s Regional Parks .. p78 Holly Cox

Integrated Community and Agency-Led Wilding Conifer Management Across the Marlborough Region, New Zealand .. p82 Jono Underwood

5A Environmental Biosecurity Related Session: Managing Coastal Weed Threats to Habitats and Amenity

Genetic Structure of the Invasive Coastal Weed Euphorbia paralias (Sea
Spurge) in Australia
.. p83 Gavin Hunter, Celeste Linde, Isabel Zeil-Rolfe, Ben Gooden

Flying to the Rescue of Shorebird Habitat in the Coorong NP — Turning the Tide on African Boxthorn Invasion .. p84 Robbie Andrew

Six Years Managing a Created Saltmarsh .. p85 Geraldene Dalby-Ball

5B GRDC Symposium Stream: Understanding Weeds in Grains

Effect of Emergence Timing on Growth and Phenotypic Plasticity of
Feather Rhodes Grass (Chloris virgata Sw.) in Southern New South Wales
.. p86 Md. Asaduzzaman, Hanwen Wu, Eric A. Koetz, Michael Hopwood, Adam Shepherd

The Impact of Selection and Breeding for Above-Ground Vigour on
Below-Ground Traits Associated with Weed Competitiveness in Wheat
.. p91 Pieter-Willem Hendriks, Saliya Gurusinghe, Emmanuel Delhaize, Greg J. Rebetzke, Peter R. Ryan, Leslie A. Weston

Impacts of Strategic Tillage in a No-Tillage Conservation Cropping System on Wild Oats Population .. p95 Mohammad Ali, Sijia Xu, Michael Widderick, Alwyn Williams, Steve Adkins

Six Years of Crop Competition Research in the Northern Grains Region — Key Trends in Impact on Weed and Crop Growth .. p99 Michael Widderick, Kerry Bell, Asad Shabbir, Hanwen Wu, Linda Heuke, Greg Harvey, Michael J. Walsh

5C Ornamental & Nursery Plant Weed Impacts & Strategies

Ornamental Environmental Weeds Were Marketed Earlier and for Longer Than Non-Weeds in New Zealand .. p100 Jennifer L. Bufford, Philip Hulme

The Science of Prevention: Risk Assessment Tools for Ornamental Plants Underpin the Plant Sure Scheme and the Gardening Responsibly Initiative .. p101 Aimee Freimanis, Michelle R. Leishman, Victoria Graham, Guyo Gufu, Claire Laws, Katherine McClellan, Samantha Newton, Hillary Cherry, Chris O’Connor

5D Weeds of Pasture Systems — Speakers and Q&A Session

Late-Staged Weed-Control Options are Significantly Reducing Annual
Ryegrass Seed Production
.. p102 Yaseen Khalil, Mike Ashworth, Anglo Loi

Finding Fungi to Fight Invasive Grasses: Developing a Mycoherbicide for GRT in Australia .. p103 Tracey Steinrucken, Joseph S. Vitelli, David Holdom, Yu Pei Tan

Herbicide and Fertilizer Application Trials to Improve Production in Giant Rat’s Tail Grass (GRT) Infested Pastures .. p104 Shane Campbell, Fred Oudyn, Rose Campbell, Megan Crossing, Alana Connolly,
Karen Harper, Wayne Vogler, Stephen Martin, Joseph S. Vitelli

A Century of Weed Change in New Zealand’s Forage Seed Multiplication Industry .. p108 Jesse Rubenstein, Philip Rolston, Philip Hulme, Jennifer L. Bufford, John Hampton

6A Environmental Biosecurity Related Session: Managing Weeds in Freshwater Ecosystems

Does Awareness of Invasive Freshwater Plants Mitigate the Dispersal Risk Posed by Lake Users? .. p109 D. Clements, Philip Hulme, Paul Champion

Control of the Emerging Aquatic Weed Amazon Frogbit with Flumioxazin .. p110 Tobias O. Bickel, Bahareh Shahrabi Farahani, Christine Perrett, Junfeng Xu, Joseph S. Vitelli

Implications of Seedbank Dynamics in Managing Aquatic Weeds p114 Hoang Nguyen, Tobias O. Bickel, Christine Perrett, Bahar Farahani, Steve Adkins

Cabomba caroliniana Eradication — Integrated Weed Control Success in the NT .. p115 Chrisher Collins, Tony M. Dugdale, Thomas Price

Interactions Between the Native Azolla filiculoides and Exotic Salvinia
.. p119 Guyo Gufu, Anthony Manea, Michelle R. Leishman

6B GRDC Symposium Stream: Control Tactics for Weeds in Grain Production

Using a 25W Diode Laser to Control Annual Ryegrass and Turnipweed .. p120 Guy Coleman, Chrisher Betters, Sergio Leon-Saval, Michael J. Walsh

Biological Control of Priority Weeds of Cropping Systems in Australia: A Viable Proposition? .. p121 Raghu Sathyamurthy

Performance and Weed Suppressive Potential of Winter Cover Crops
Established as Monocultures and Multispecies Mixtures in Southern Australia
.. p 122 Saliya Gurusinghe, K.M. Shamsul Haque, Asad Shabbir, Michael J. Walsh, Leslie A. Weston

Integrated Weed Management — Alternative Strategies for Weed Control in Pulses .. p126 Navneet Aggarwal, Penny Roberts, Helena Oakey, Larn McMurray

Developing Strategies to Mitigate and Manage Resistance to Key Herbicides: A Project Overview .. p130 Jenna Malone, Navneet Aggarwal, Michael Widderick, Danica Goggin, Roberto Busi,
Hugh Beckie, Chrisher Preston

Winter Cover Crops and their Weed Suppressive Abilities .. p131 Asad Shabbir, Campbell Parish, Michael J. Walsh

6C Advances in Weed Detection Technologies and Eradication Programs

WeedScan — A Website and Smartphone App for Identifying, Reporting and Managing Priority Weeds in Australia .. p135 Claire Lock, Andrew Mitchell, Alexander Schmidt-Lebuhn, Matthew Shillam, Ron Li, Hanwen Wu

Digital 3D Weed Models — An Innovative Identification Tool for Early
.. p136 Rachel K. Klyve, Wendy L. Gibney, Ian K. Turnbull

Implementation of a Rapid Response Biosecurity Program to Eradicate a Novel Invasive Species (Bocconia frutescens) in NSW .. p140 Terry Inkson, Matt Ansley, Alysha Wynan

The Threat of Black Knapweed (Centaurea x moncktonii) on the Northern Tablelands of NSW .. p141 Graham W. Charles, Kerinne Harvey, Claire Lock

Significant New Weed Detections in the Northern Territory 2017–2021 — Consequences for Management .. p145 Louis Elliott

7A Rangeland Ecosystem Weed Management

Low-Volume High-Concentration Applications of Glyphosate to Control Gamba Grass (Andropogon gayanus) .. p146 Melissa Setter, Stephen Setter, Melinda Perkins, Hayley McMillan, Shane Campbell

The Advancing Front of Invasive Lovegrasses Across Australia’s Rangelands .. p150 Shane Blakely, Marie Vitelli, Maree Tully, Ann-Maree Johnson, Jaime Colley

Evaluation of Di-Bak Herbicide Capsule System for Control of Chinee Apple (Ziziphus mauritiana) in North Queensland .. p154 Ciara J. O’Brien, Shane Campbell, Wayne Vogler, Victor J. Galea

Monitoring Striga asiatica (Orobanchaceae) Seedbank for Eradication Success .. p158 Anna M. Williams, Natasha Riding, Joseph S. Vitelli

7B GRDC Symposium Stream: A Grains Farming Systems Approach to Managing Weeds

Interaction Between Wheat Establishment Timing and Pre-Emergent
Herbicide Choice on Growth and Competition of Annual Ryegrass
p162 Mike Ashworth, Roberto Lujan Rocha, Hugh Beckie

Phytotoxicity Thresholds for Crop Seedlings Exposed to Soilborne Residues of Diuron and Imazapic are Regulated by Soil Type .. p167 Michael Rose, Annie Ruttledge, Jesse Muller, Kelvin Spann, Lukas Van Zwieten, Michael Widderick

Demonstrating Integrated Weed Management Strategies to Control Barley Grass in Low Rainfall Zone Farming Systems .. p168 Amanda Cook, Gurjeet Gill

WeedSmart — Changing the Face of Communications & Learning in
Australian Agriculture
.. p171 Lisa Mayer, Jessica Strauss

7C Weed Surveillance Technology Uses & Social Values

Weed Wide Web: Surveillance of Online Trade in Declared Plants .. p172 Jacob Maher, Lisa Wood, Stephanie Moncayo, Oliver Stringham, Phill Cassey

Management of the Online Trade of Salvinia molesta in Victoria: Detection, Identification and Eradication .. p173 Victoria Byrne, Zachariah Munakamwe

Collaborating to Combat Illegal Online Trade of Noxious Weeds: ‘Bridging the Borders’ .. p174 Zachariah Munakamwe, Angela Constantine

New Threats, Old Foes: Problem Weeds for Farmers .. p178 Nyree Stenekes, R. Kancans

7D Novel Chemistries, Synthetic Herbicides & Weed Enzymes

Novel Chemistries in Eucalyptus Essential Oils — A Nature’s Gift for
Herbicide Discovery
.. p179 Hanwen Wu

Herbicidal Activity of Digera muricata Against Melilotus indicus and
Identification of Allelochemicals
.. p180 Ali Raza, Muhammad Akbar, Tayyaba Khalil, Nasim Ahmad Yasin, Abdul Nazir, Aqeel Ahmad

A Potentially Sustainable Weed Control Method Using Urease Enzymes
Extracted from Weeds
.. p181 Md. Mizanur Rahman, Isaac Ahenkorah, Bikash Devkota, Md. Rajibul Karim, Simon Beecham, Chrisher Chow, Jack Desboilles

8A Fire and Weeds: Learnings from the 2019/20 Bushfires & Planning for Next Time — Speakers and Q&A Session

Supporting Weed Management Including Early Invader Weeds During
Bushfire Recovery in Victoria After the Summer of 2019
.. p185 Kate Blood, Bianca Gold

Navigating Bushfire Recovery in the Adelaide Hills .. p186 Katrina Warner, Catherine Austin

Unexpected Outcomes on the Road to Recovery After the Black Summer Fires — and its Mostly Australian Natives! 187 Laura Williams, Jason Walter

8B Area Wide Management of Weeds

Beyond the Boundary: Implementing an Area-Wide Weed Management
Approach for Mobile Crop Weeds
.. p188 Rick Llewellyn, Tanja Morgan, Iva Quarisa, Rebecca Kirby, Jason Emms, Sonia Graham, Chrisher Preston, Christina Ratcliff, James Hereward, Tim Capon, Stuart Whitten, Marta Monjardino, Vicki Green

Opportunities for Area-Wide Management of Cropping Weeds: A Survey of Growers in Australia .. p189 Silja Schrader, Sonia Graham, Rebecca Campbell, Kaitlyn Height

A Population Genetics Approach to Evaluating Weed Movement and the Role for Area Wide Weed Management .. p190 James Hereward, Jenna Malone, Christina Ratcliff, Iva Quarisa, Rebecca Kirby, Tanja Morgan, Chrisher Preston

Glyphosate Resistance in Mobile Weeds Across Land Uses: Implications for Area Wide Management of Weeds .. p194 Chrisher Preston, Fleur C. Dolman, Tanja Morgan, Iva Quarisa, Rebecca Kirby,
Christina Ratcliff

Increasing Cropping Systems Resilience to Reduce the Costs of New Weed and Resistance Arrivals .. p198 Tim Capon, Marta Monjardino, Rick Llewellyn, Sonia Graham, Stuart Whitten

8C Weeds Biosecurity Risk Assessment Tools

Developing Practical Tools to Support Biosecurity Legislation .. p199 Matt Sheehan, Shauna Potter

A New Post-Border Weed Biosecurity Risk Management System .. p200 Paul O. Downey, Simon Holloway, Neville Plumb

Understanding the System Matters — Stepping Back for General Surveillance ……. 204 Jenifer Ticehurst, Heleen Kruger, Catherine McInerney, Melinda Laidlaw

A Tool to Assess Knowledge and Risk Level of Exotic Perennial Grass
Invasion in NSW Native Communities
.. p209 Julia Rayment

Determining New Weeds of National Significance .. p210 John G. Virtue, Matt Sheehan, Shauna Potter

8D Weeds in Sugarcane Production Systems

Herbicide Use in Sugarcane and Great Barrier Reef: Can Growers Reduce their Pesticide Losses via Runoff .. p215 Emilie Fillols, A. Davis, S. Lewis

Management of Navua Sedge (Cyperus aromaticus): A Role of Competition Using Two Pasture Species .. p 216 Boyang Shi, Mogomotsi Moilwa, Olusegun O. Osunkoya, Kunjithapatham Dhileepan, Steve Adkins

Precise Robotic Weed Spot-Spraying for Improved Environmental and
Economic Outcomes in the Sugarcane Industry
.. p220 Mostafa Rahimi Azghadi, Alex Olsen, Jake Wood, Brendan Calvert, Bronson Philippa,
Terry Granshaw, Emilie Fillols

9A Biocontrol Host-Specificity Testing & Host Ranges

Biological Control of African Lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula): Native-Range Surveys in Africa .. p221 Guy Sutton, Liam Yell, Clarke van Steenderen, Andrew McConnachie, Kerinne Harvey, Iain Paterson

Listronotus frontalis (Curculionidae: Coleoptera): Host-Specificity Testing .. p222 Umar Lubanga, Raelene Kwong

The Blackberry Cane-Boring Sawfly — What does its DNA Tell us About its Host Specificity? .. p223 Raelene Kwong, Mark Blacket, Lea Rako, Vincent Lesieur, Thierry Thomann

A Phylogeographic Role in Host-Specificity Testing — A Case Study of Acacia auriculiformis Herbivores .. p224 Muhammad Nawaz, Dean R. Brookes, Graham A. McCulloch, Gimme H. Walter

Biological Control of Cabomba caroliniana: Biology and Host Range of the Cabomba Weevil Hydrotimetes .. p225 Nagalingam Kumaran, Tim Vance, David Comben, Quinton Dell, M.I. Oleiro, C. Mengoni Goñalons, Guillermo Cabrera Walsh, Raghu Sathyamurthy

9B Herbicide Resistance Extent & Mechanisms

Herbicide Resistance Status of Barley Grass (Hordeum glaucum Steud.)
Populations in Low Rainfall Zones of Southern And Western Australia
.. p226 Gurjeet Gill, Daniel Petersen, Ben Fleet

Identification of Field Resistance to HPPD-Inhibiting Herbicides in Wild Radish .. p230 Roberto Busi, Danica Goggin, Hugh Beckie

Resistance Surveys and Commercial Testing Services — Similarities and Differences for Wild Oats, Barley Grass and Brome Grass Across South Eastern Australia .. p 231 John Broster, Peter Boutsalis, Chrisher Preston, Gurjeet Gill

Dinitroaniline Herbicide Resistance Evolution in Lolium Rigidum … .. p 232 Qin Yu, Heping Han, Stephen Powles, Hugh Beckie

9D Crop Competition & Strategic Tillage for Weed Control

Strategic Tillage for Soil Amelioration — How does it Change the Weed
Management Strategy?
.. p233 Catherine Borger, Sultan Mia, George Mwenda, Sarah Collins, Stephen Davies, Gaus Azam

The Role of Crop Competition in Managing Early Emerging Summer Weeds in Wheat .. p234 Asad Shabbir, Michael Widderick, Greg Harvey, Linda Heuke, Michael J. Walsh

Effect of Combinations of Sowing Time, Seed Rate and Herbicides on
Ryegrass Management in Faba Beans
.. p235 Ben Fleet, Gurjeet Gill

10A Biocontrol Establishment & Monitoring

Parkinsonia Biological Control: Establishment, Spread and Impact of UU1 and UU2 Across Northern Australia .. p236 Michelle Rafter, Kelli Pukallus, Wenting Su, Gimme H. Walter, Andrew White

Pheromone Trapping for Monitoring the Establishment and Spread of
Eueupithecia cisplatensis and E. vollonoides, Biological Control Agents for Parkinsonia aculeata
.. p 237 Cody-Ellen Murray, Michelle Rafter, Gimme H. Walter

First Release and Establishment of the Biological Control Agent Cecidochares connexa for the Management of Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob (chromolaena) in Australia .. p238 Kelli Pukallus, Ainsley Kronk, Michelle Franklin

A Thorny Tale: Cylindropuntia pallida (Hudson Pear) Biocontrol in New South Wales, Australia .. p242 Andrew McConnachie, P. Jones, A. Fletcher, Mat Savage, A. Patterson, Royce Holtkamp, L. Snow, T. Taylor, Jo-Anna Skewes, Peter Dawson, C. Bergin, Kerinne Harvey, P. Turner, R. Shilpakar, Muhammad Nawaz

10B Weed Control in Cropping Systems

Sensitivity of Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) and Other Plant Species to
Overwatch Herbicide (bixlozone) When Applied at Rates Simulating Spray Drift Exposure
.. p243 Marco Montagna, Geoff Robertson, Peter Boutsalis, Sam Kleemann

Weed Seed Bank Mitigation Using Cover Crops in Maize (Zea mays) v244 Deborah Hackell, Trevor James, Ben Wynne-Jones, Steve Payne, Sam McDougall

Gene Technologies in Weed Management: What we Need to Know? .. .. p248 Nagalingam Kumaran, Anupma Choudhary, Mathieu Legros, Andy Sheppard, Luke Barrett, Donald Gardiner, Raghu Sathyamurthy

Voraxor Herbicide: An Alternative to Paraquat in Fallow Double-Knock — Managing Glyphosate and Paraquat Resistant Weeds .. p249 Russell Ison, Ian Francis, Georgia Readett, Melissa Brown

10C Looking Forward: Weed Threat Prevention & Abatement

Transforming Wild and Weedy Australia: Outcomes of the 2020 Fenner
Conference on the Environment
.. p253 Sonia Graham, Nicholas Gill

Prevention is Best: Protecting Australia from Future Environmental Weed Threats .. p254 Simon J. Brooks, Hillary Cherry, Katherina Ng, Barbara Waterhouse, Paul Champion

Abating the Threat of Exotic Vines and Scramblers in Threatened Ecological Communities .. p 258 Adam Bernich

Adopting Standard Methods for Assessing Biodiversity Impacts of Invasive Alien Species .. p 259 Jens G. Froese, Ben Gooden, Rocio Ponce-Reyes, Alana L. Burley, David A. Nipperess, Kristen Williams

Poster Presentations

Host-Specificity Testing for the Tradescantia Leaf Beetle (Neolema ogloblini) .. p260 Umar Lubanga, Greg Lefoe, David McLaren, Tony M. Dugdale, Raelene Kwong

Towards the Development of Herbicides Targeting Lysine Biosynthesis .. p261 Emily Mackie, Andrew Barrow, Marie-Claire Giel, Mark Hulett, Anthony Gendall, Santosh Panjikar, Tatiana Soares da Costa

Progress Towards the Eradication of Limnocharis flava from Australia .. p262 Simon J. Brooks, Kimberley Erbacher, Jacob Maher

Age and Size of Flowering Mikania micrantha Plants Raised in a Controlled Environment .. p266 Simon J. Brooks, Kirsty L. Gough

Enhancement of the Colonisation Process of a Bioherbicide in Chinese Elm (Celtis sinensis) Through Co-Treatment .. p271 Ciara J. O’Brien, Brooke Johnstone, Victor J. Galea

Invasive Grasses Management Program — Piloting a Different Approach to an Old Problem .. p272 Cath Walsh, Shauna Potter

Fund a Landowner’s Weed Control and you’ve Weeded for a Season, Teach a Landholder Long-Term Weed Control Strategies and you’ve Weeded for a Lifetime .. p. 273 Shannon Robertson

Comparison of Adjuvants with Soil-Binding Properties to Reduce Herbicides Runoff Losses in Sugarcane .. p 274 A. Davis, Emilie Fillols

Riskmapr: A Web Tool for Mapping Weed Risk to Support Operational
.. p 275 Jens G. Froese, Moya Calvert, Simon J. Brooks, Alan Pearse, Grant Hamilton

Influence of Broadacre Crop Rotational Sequence on the Weed Seedbank in the Riverina
.. p276 K.M. Shamsul Haque, Saliya Gurusinghe, Graeme Heath, Paul A. Weston, Agasthya Thotaga, William B. Brown, Leslie A. Weston

Cover Crops in Maize (Zea mays) Enable Reduced Herbicide Use .. p 277 Trevor James, Michael Trolove, Sam McDougall, Steve Payne

Genetic Mutation in a Putative Aux/IAA Gene in Common Sowthistle
Proposed as the Basis for 2,4-D Resistance
.. p278 Mahima Krishnan, Tijana Petrovic, Alicia Merriam, Geetha Velappan, Chrisher Preston

The ACT Experience with Mobile Device Mapping of Invasive Plants .. p279 Michael Tweedie, Harley Baker, Kirsten Tasker, Ian Lenon

How Effective is Satusteam as a Tool for Weed Control and Restoring
.. p280 Jeremy Winer

Against the Odds — Policy Challenges for Managing Buffel Grass Invasion in Non-Pastoral Arid Lands .. p281 Jeffery Foulkes

Estimating Tropical Weed Seed Longevity with a Laboratory Test .. p282 Simon J. Brooks, Dannielle A. Brazier, Clare Warren

Bixlozone: A New Isoxazolidinone Herbicide for a Wide Range of Major Crops .. p286 Marco Montagna, Geoff Robertson

Survival of Tropical Weed Species Propagules After Immersion in Fresh, Brackish and Salt Water .. p287 Stephen Setter, Melissa Setter, Wayne Vogler

Effect of Cultivar and Seed Weight on Triticale Competitiveness with Annual Ryegrass Lolium rigidum .. p291 Husam Khalaf, Brian Sindel, Paul Kristiansen, Craig Birchall, Robin Jessop

Management of Globe Chamomile (Oncosiphon piluliferum) .. p292 Alexandra Douglas, David F. Nicholson

Interactive Effect of High Temperature and Reduced Soil Moisture
Availability on the Morpho-Physiological Traits and Glyphosate
Susceptibility of Windmill Grass (Chloris truncata R.Br.)
.. p 293 Arslan Masood Peerzada, Alwyn Williams, Chris O’Donnell, Steve Adkins

Recent Advances in Field Releases of Environmental Weed Biocontrol Agents .. p294 Ben Gooden, Gavin Hunter, Raelene Kwong, Andrew McConnachie, Hillary Cherry, Louise Morin

Non-Chemical Cyperus iria Weed Management Through Rice Densities and Weed Emergence Times in Dry-Seeded Rice Eco-System .. p295 Tahir Awan, Bhagirath Chauhan

Before the Bulldozers Go in: Reducing the Risk of New and Emerging Weeds in Leigh Creek .. p296 Matthew Westover

Weeding it out: The Australian Online Trade of Invasive Aquatic Plants .. p297 Lisa Wood, Jacob Maher, Phill Cassey, Stephanie Moncayo, Oliver Stringham

Maximising Control Effectiveness Using Prescribed Burning for Control of Sweet Pittosporum (Pittosporum undulatum) .. p298 Dale Fuller, Matt Russel, Ruby Wicks

Optimal Barley Grass Management .. p299 Catherine Borger, Sam Stubna, Ben Whisson, Tiarna Kanny, Brad Joyce, Amy Bowden,
David Minkey

Australian Weed Morphology and its Potential Impact on Electric Weed
Control Application Efficacy
.. p303 Miranda Slaven, Catherine Borger

Urban Waterway and Aquatic Weed Management — Case Studies from over 20yrs .. p 307 Geraldene Dalby-Ball

Efficacy of Pre-Emergent Herbicides on Ameliorated Soil .. p308 Bowen Zhang, Sultan Mia, Tom Edwards, Gaus Azam, Catherine Borger

OpenWeedLocator (OWL): An Open-Source, Community-Driven and Low-Cost Fallow Weed Detection Tool .. p312 Guy Coleman, William Salter, Michael J. Walsh

Assessing the Fungal Pathogen Stagonospora tauntonense as a Biocontrol Agent Against Rat’s Tail Grasses .. p313 Eloise Martin

Trialling Foot Cleaning Stations in Kosciuszko NP for Biosecurity Hygiene: How Much do Bushwalkers Use them, What Influences their Use, and How do they Respond to the Cleaning Stations? .. p 314 Nicholas Gill, Leonie Miller

Passiflora foetida: Prospects for Biological Control .. p315 Nagalingam Kumaran, Gavin Hunter, Giovanni Fichera, Mariano Maestro,
Guillermo Cabrera Walsh, Alejandra Milena Clavijo-Giraldo, Paola Betancur García, Sandra Uribe-Soto, Juan Gonzalo Morales Osorio, Mauricio Salazar Yepes, Eduardo Adenesky-Filho, Marcelo Diniz-Vitorino, Bruce L. Webber, Louise Morin, S. Raghu

Making a Difference to Invasive Grasses Management on the Ground .. .. p316 Stephen B. Johnson, Sarah. J. Baker, Bill Davidson, Carol A. Harris, Katrina Sinclair, Hanwen Wu, Ali A. Bajwa

What is your State of Vulnerability to Climate Change? Biosecurity and Weed Threats to New South Wales Primary Industries .. p320 Stephen B. Johnson, Jane M. Kelley, Bethany Ellis, James Lawson

Getting the Most out of Herbicides and Combinations for Lentil (Lens
culinaris) Crop Safety and Broadleaf Weed Control on Light to Medium
Textured Soils
.. p324 Navneet Aggarwal, Sam Trengove, Jordan Bruce, Stuart Sherriff, Penny Roberts

HARDI GeoSelect .. p329 Heath Thompson, Andrew Snowball

Siam Weed and the Dust Devils: Managing Chromolaena odorata in the
Northern Territory
.. p330 Thomas Price

Efficacy of Steam Weed Management on Mother of Millions (Bryophyllum species), Singapore Daisy (Sphagneticola trilobata) and Butterfly Heaven (Dyschoriste depressa) .. p335 Kerrie Guppy, Tali Shelley